Literature cited
   stats main page  

Amstrup, S C; T L McDonald; B F J Manly, editors. 2005. Handbook of capture-recapture analysis. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ

Anderson, D R. 2008. Model based inference in the life sciences: a primer on evidence. Springer Science + Business Media, New York NY.

Anderson, D R; K P Burnham; W L Thompson. 2000. Null hypothesis testing: problems, prevalence, and an alternative. J Wildlife Management 64:912-923.

Berger, J O; D A Berry. 1988. Statistical analysis and the illusion of objectivity. American Scientist 76:159-165

Berger, W H; F L Parker. 1970. Diversity of planktonic Foramenifera in deep sea sediments. Science 168:1345-1347.

Bierregaard, R O, jr; T E Lovejoy; V Kapos; A A dos Santos; R W Hutchings. (1992) The biological dynamics of tropical forest fragments. BioScience, 42, 859-866.

Bolker, B M 2008. Ecological Models and Data in R. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Bolstad, W M 2004. Introduction to Bayesian statistics. Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken NJ.

Buckland, S T; D R Anderson; K P Burnham; J L Laake; D L Borchers; L Thomas 2001. Introduction to distance sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Buckland, S T; D R Anderson; K P Burnham; J L Laake; D L Borchers; L Thomas, editors. 2004. Advanced distance sampling. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK

Burnham, K P; D R Anderson 2002. Model selection and multi-model inference. Springer-Verlag

Burnham, K P; W S Overton 1979. Robust estimation of population size when capture probabilities vary among animals. Ecology, 60, 927-936.

Butcher, J A; J E Groce; C M Lituma; M C Cocimano; Y Sánchez-Johnson, et al. 2007. Persistent controversy in statistical approaches in wildlife sciences: a perspective of students. J Wildlife Management 71:2142-2144.

Chamberlin, T C. 1890. The method of multiple working hypotheses: With this method the dangers of parental affection for a favorite theory can be circumvented. Science 15:92.

Chao, A; T-J Shen. 2003. Nonparametric estimation of Shannon's index of diversity when there are unseen species in sample. Environmental and Ecological Statistics 10:429-443.

Christensen, R. 2005. Testing Fisher, Neyman, Pearson, and Bayes. American Statistician 59:121-126

Cohen, J. 1994. The earth is round (p < .05). American Psychologist 49:997-1003.

Colwell, R K; A Chao; N J Gotelli; S-Y Lin; C X Mao; R L Chazdon; J T Longino. 2012. Models and estimators linking individual-based and sample-based rarefaction, extrapolation and comparison of assemblages. Journal of Plant Ecology 5:3-21. link

Cooch, E; G White 2010 (9th edition, but constantly updated). Program MARK: a gentle introduction. Available online in PDF format at:

Crome, F H J; M R Thomas; L A Moore. 1996. A novel Bayesian approach to assessing impacts of rain forest logging. Ecological Applications 6:1104-1123

Dalgaard, P 2002. Introductory Statistics with R. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Efford, M. (2004) Density estimation in live-trapping studies. Oikos, 106, 598-610

Efron, B; R J Tibshirani 1993. An introduction to the bootstrap. Chapman and Hall/CRC, London.

Fidler, F; M A Burgman; G Cumming; R Buttrose; N Thomason. 2006. Impact of criticism of null-hypothesis significance testing on statistical reporting practices in conservation biology. Conservation Biology 20:1539-1544.

Fisher, R A 1925, 1946. Statistical methods for research workers. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. (Page numbers refer to the 10 edition, 1946).

Fisher, R A; A S Corbet; C B Williams. 1943. The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. J Animal Ecology 12:42-58.

Gelman, A; J Hill 2007. Data analysis using regression and multilevel/hierarchical models. Cambridge University Press.

Gelman, A; H Stern. 2006. The difference between “significant” and “not significant” is not itself statistically significant. American Statistician 60(4):328-331.

Gotelli, N J; A M Ellison. 2004. A primer of ecological statistics. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA.

Hedges, S; D Lawson. 2006. Dung survey standards for the MIKE programme. CITES MIKE Central Coordinating Unit, Nairobi, Kenya. Available in PDF format from the CITES web site.

Hedges, S; M J Tyson; A F Sitompul; M F Kinnaird; D Gunaryadi; Aslan. 2005. Distribution, status, and conservation needs of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Lampung Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Biological Conservation 124:35-48.

Hilborn, R; M Mangel 1997. The ecological detective: confronting models with data. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ.

Hill, M O. 1973. Diversity and evenness: a unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology 54:427-431

Johnson, D H. 1999. The insignificance of statistical hypothesis testing. J Wildlife Management 63:763-772 (Available online at

Jost, L. 2006. Entropy and diversity. Oikos 113:363-375.

Karanth, K U; J D Nichols; N S Kumar; W A Link; J E Hines. 2004. Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101:4854-4858. (Available on line at

Kéry, M 2010. Introduction to WinBUGS for ecologists: A Bayesian approach to regression, ANOVA, mixed models and related analyses. Academic Press.

Kéry, M; M Schaub 2011. Bayesian population analysis using WinBUGS - a hierarchical perspective. Academic Press.

Kruschke, J K 2011. Doing Bayesian data analysis: a tutorial with R and BUGS. Elsevier, Amsterdam

Laing, S E; S T Buckland; R W Burn; D Lambie; A Amphlett. 2003. Dung and nest surveys: estimating decay rates. J Applied Ecology 40:1102-1111.

Lebreton, J-D; K P Burnham; J Clobert; D R Anderson. 1992. Modeling survival and testing biological hypotheses using marked animals: a unified approach with case studies. Ecological Monographs, 62, 67-118.

Link, W A; R J Barker 2010. Bayesian Inference with ecological applications. Academic Press, San Diego CA.

Longino, J T; J Coddington; R K Colwell. 2002. The ant fauna of a tropical rain forest: estimating species richness three different ways. Ecology 83:689-702

Lynam, A J; R Laidlaw; Wan Shaharuddin Wan Noordin; S Elagupillay; E L Bennett. 2007. Assessing the conservation status of the tiger Panthera tigris at priority sites in Peninsular Malaysia. Oryx 41:454-462

Magurran, A E 2004. Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell.

MacKenzie, D I; J D Nichols; G B Lachman; S Droege; J A Royle; C A Langtimm. 2002. Estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are less than one. Ecology 83:2248-2255

MacKenzie, D I; J D Nichols; A J Royle; K H Pollock; L L Bailey; J E Hines 2006. Occupancy estimation and modeling : inferring patterns and dynamics of species occurrence. Elsevier Publishing.

McGarvey, D J. 2007. Merging precaution with sound science under the Endangered Species Act. BioScience 57:65-70.

Marques, F F C; S T Buckland; D Goffin; C E Dixon; D L Borchers; B A Mayle; A J Peace. 2001. Estimating deer abundance from line transect surveys of dung: sika deer in southern Scotland. J Applied Ecology 38:349-363.

Maurer, B A; B J McGill. 2011. Measurement of species diversity. 55-64 in Magurran, A E, and B J McGill, editors. Biological diversity: frontiers in measurement and assessment. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York NY

Morrison, M L; W M Block; M D Strickland; W L Kendall. 2001. Wildlife study design Springer, New York.

Morrogh-Bernard, H; S Husson; S E Page; J O Rieley. 2003. Population status of the Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) in the Sebangau peat swamp forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biological Conservation 110:141-152.

Ntzoufras, I 2009. Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS. Wiley, Hoboken NJ.

Payne, J; C M Francis; K Phillipps. 1985. A field guide to the mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society and WWF Malaysia.

Pledger, S. 2000. Unified maximum likelihood estimates for closed capture-recapture models using mixtures. Biometrics, 56, 434-442.

Popper, K. 1959. The logic of scientific discovery. Bantam Books

Quinn, G P; M J Keough. 2002. Experimental design and data analysis for biologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.

Ramsey, F L; D W Schafer 2002. The statistical sleuth: a course in methods of data analysis. Duxbury Press, Belmont CA.

Rennolls, K; Y Laumonier. 2006. A new local estimator of regional species diversity, in terms of ‘shadow species’, with a case study from Sumatra. J Tropical Ecology 22:321-329.

Rényi, A. 1961. On measures of entropy and information. Pages p 547-561 in Neyman, J, editor. 4th Berkeley symposium on mathematical statistics and probability. University of California Press, Berkeley CA, Berkeley. Reprinted in Pal Turan (Hrsg), Selected papers of Alfred Rényi. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, 2:565-580, 1976.

Robinson, D H; H Wainer. 2002. On the past and future of null hypothesis significance testing. J Wildlife Management 66:263-271

Royall, R M 1997. Statistical evidence: a likelihood paradigm. Chapman and Hall/CRC, New York NY

Royle, J A; R B Chandler; R Sollmann; B Gardner 2014. Spatial capture-recapture Elsevier.

Royle, J A; R M Dorazio 2008. Hierarchical modeling and inference in ecology: the analysis of data from populations, metapopulations and communities. Academic Press.

Royle, J A; J D Nichols. 2003. Estimating abundance from repeated presence-absence data or point counts. Ecology 84:777-790

Russon, A E; A Erman; R Dennis. 2001. The population and distribution of Orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in and around Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biological Conservation 97:21-28.

Shannon, C E. 1948. A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal 27:379-423.

Simpson, E H. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature 163:688

Snedecor, G W. 1937. Statistical Methods Applied to Experiments in Agriculture and Biology

Stephens, P A; S W Buskirk; C Martínez del Rio. 2007. Inference in ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22:192-197

van Schaik, C P; A Priatna; D Priatna. 1995. Population estimates and habitat preferences of orangutans based on line transects of nests. pp 129-147 in Nadler, R D, B F M Galdikas, L K Sheeran, and N Rosen, editors. The neglected ape. Plenum, New York.

Venables, W N; B D Ripley 2002. Modern applied statistics with S. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Vucetich, J A; R O Peterson; C L Schaefer. 2002. The effect of prey and predator densities on wolf predation. Ecology 83:3003-3013

Wade, P R. 2001. The conservation of exploited species in an uncertain world: novel methods and the failure of traditional techniques. Ch 6 in Reynolds, J, G M Mace, K H Redford, and J G Robinson, editors. Conservation of exploited species. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.

Walsh, P D; L J T White. 2005. Evaluating the steady state assumption: simulations of gorilla nest decay. Ecological Applications 15:1342-1350

Yates, F. 1935. Complex experiments. J Royal Statistical Society Supplement 2:181-247 home

Text by Mike Meredith, updated 2 Feb 2015